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Unit 1A SHORT HISTORY OF WESTERN PAINTINGArt is influenced by the customs and faith of a people. Styles in Western art have changed many times. As there are so many different styles of Western art, it would be impossible to describe all of them in such a short text. Consequently, this text will describe only the most important ones. Starting from the sixth century AD. The Middle Ages(5th to the 15th century AD) During the Middle Ages, the main aim of painters was to represent religious themes. A conventional artistof this period was not interested in showing nature and people as they really were. A typical picture at this time was full of religious symbols, which created a feeling of respect and love for God. But it was evident that ideas were changing in the 13th century when painters like Giotto di Bondone began to paint religious scenes in a more realistic way. The Renaissance(15th to 16th century) During the Renaissance, new ideas and values gradually replaced those held in the Middle Ages. People began to concentrate less on religious themes and adopt a more humanistic attitude to life.At the same time painters returned to classical Roman and Greek ideas about art. They tried to paint people and nature as they really were. Rich people wanted to possess their own paintings, so they coule decorate their superb palaces and great houses. They paid famous artists to paint pictures of themselves, their houses and possessions as well as their activities and achievements. One of the most important discoveries during this period was how to draw things in perspective. This technique was first used by Masaccio in 1428. When people first saw his paintings, they were convinced that they were looking through a hole in a wall at a real scene. If the rules of perspective had not been discovered, no one would have been able to paint such realistic pictures. By coincidence,oil paints were also developed at this time, which made the colours used in paintings look richer and deeper. Without the new paints and the new technique, we would not be able to see the many great masterpieces for which this period is famous. Impressionism(late 19h to early 20th century) In the late 19th century, Europe changed a great deal,from a mostly agricultural society to a mostly industrial one. Many people moved from the countryside to the new cities. There were many new inventions and social changes also led to new painting styles. Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and worke in Paris. The Impressionists were the first painters to work outdoors. They were eager to show how light and shadow fell on objects at different times of day. However, because natural light changes so quickly, the Impressionists had to paint quickly. Their paintings were not as detailed as those of earlier painters. At first, many people disliked this style of painting and became very angry about it. They said that the painters were careless and their paintings were ridiculous. Modern Art(29th century to today) At the time they were created, the Impressionist paintings were controversial, but today they are accepeted as the beginning of what we call “modern art”. This is because the Impressionists encouraged artists to look at their environment in new ways. There are scores of modern art styles,but without the Impressionists, many of these painting styles might not exsist. On the one hand, some modern art is abstract; that is, the painter does not attempt to paint objects as we see them with our eyes, but instead concentrates n certain qualities of the object, using colour, line and shape to represent them. On the other hand, some paintings of modern art are so realistic that they look like photographs. These styles are so different. Who can predict what painting styles there will be in the future?
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是这个吗？unit5--AN EXCITING JOB1I have the greatest job in the world. travel to unusual places and work alongside people from all over the world sometimes working outdoors sometimes in an office sometimes using scientific equipment and sometimes meeting local people and tourists I am never bored although my job is occasionally dangerous I don't mind because danger excites me and makes me feel alive However the most important thing about my job is that I heIp protect ordinary people from one of the most powerful forces on earth-the volcano.1/(我有世界上最伟大的工作。不寻常的地方旅行和工作，所有的人一起在户外工作，有时世界有时在办公室，有时用科学的设备，有时满足当地人民，我从来不觉得无聊，虽然我的工作是偶尔危险了，我不介意，因为危险，让我兴奋的游客并让我觉得活着不过，对我工作中最重要的是我救命保护地球上，火山最强大的力量之一的普通人。)2I was appointed as a volcanologist working for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) twenty years ago My job is collecting information for a database about Mount KiLauea which is one of the most active volcanoes in Hawaii Having collected and evaluated the information I help oyher scientists to predict where lava from the path of the lava can be warned to leave their houses Unfortunately we cannot move their homes out of the way and many houses have been covered with lava or burned to the ground.2我被任命为夏威夷火山观测站(防务委员会)二十年前，我的工作是收集有关装入一个数据库的基拉韦厄火山是夏威夷最活跃的火山之一在收集和评估的资料我帮oyher信息工作的科学家火山预知的熔岩从火山熔岩路径可以被警告离开他们的房子很遗憾，我们不能移动的方式，并已覆盖着熔岩或夷为平地许多房屋家园.
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人教版高中英语选修18.104.22.168课文，单词录音MP3 2013-09-20 | 分享
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