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曹雪芹英语简介英语,曹雪芹英文介绍配翻译

日期:来源:曹雪芹英语简介英语收集编辑:土味情话

曹雪芹英文介绍配翻译

He is one of the most famous novelists and poets in the history of Chinese literature. He was born in an influential Manchurian bureaucratic family,he had high cultural accomplishments and outstanding competence for art.

曹雪静是中国历史上最有名的文学家,他出生在一个具有影响力的满族官僚家族,他有高的文化成就和杰出的画画技巧。

纯手打望采纳。

中国四大名著的英文名及英文简介

《三国演义》----《The Romance of the Three Kindoms》

《水浒传》----《The Story by the Water Margin》

《红楼梦》----《The Dream of the Red Chamber 》

《西游记》----《Journey to the West》

中国四大名著英文简介2009-06-07

Chinese Literature - Novels and fiction

Hongloumeng 红楼梦"The Dream of the Red Chamber"

Also called "The story of the Stone (Shitouji 石头记)", this novel written by Cao Xueqin 曹雪芹 (d. 1763) is said to be the greatest masterpiece of Chinese fiction. A wide branched scholarship does not consent about the main theme of this novel, should it be a novel of sentiment, of Daoist-Buddhist enlightenment, of social observation, of the decay of an aristocratic familiy, or even a veiled attack on Manchu rule. The frame of the novel is the contest of a Buddhist and a Daoist priest who make be born a young noble boy called Jia Baoyu 贾宝玉 and his girl cousin Lin Daiyu 林黛玉. With a loving detail describing the life of the two cousins in a huge noble mansion, between gardens and palaces, the red thread is the triangular love between Baoyu, Daiyu and a second girl cousin called Xue Baochai 薛宝钗 that is of more plumper character than the ever sick Daiyu. Switching between their life, the divine world and dreams, Baoyu becomes deranged after the disappearance of a stone (the origin of the second title) he had in his mouth when he was born. Not knowing, his love Daiyu died, he is tricked to marrying Baochai. Becoming aware of being tricked, Baoyu leaves the world of the "red dust" and becomes a monk. With hundreds of persons and their stories, paralleling the life and feelings of servants to the life of the main persons, the story is very complex and full of symbolisms, but very interesting and convincing for its encyclopedic character, depicting the life of a noble familiy in the 18th century Qing China 清.

三国演义Romance of The Three Kingdoms

Romance of The Three Kingdoms is one of the great chinese classics and is compiled into a semi-fictional literary masterpiece during the Ming Dynasty by Luo Guanzhong. The novel comprises around 70+% fact and 20+% fiction. Some issues such as Guan Yu's weapon weighing around 40+ kilograms, the capabilties of Lu Bu, Liu Bei's horses as well as the existence of the Hill of the Fallen Phoenix and some others are probably fictional.

That period in history can be said as the golden age of chivalry and although it happened more than 1700 years ago, characters such as Liu Bei, Cao Cao, Guan Yu, Zhang Fei and Zhuge Liang have become household names among the chinese. Tales of their exploits, courage, adventures and many more are told in the novel "Romance of The Three Kingdoms".

It is one of the most turbulent periods in China's history taking place toward the end of the Han Dynasty where corruption is rampant in the imperial court due to eunuches holding power. Coupled with natural disasters such as floods, plague and locust swarms devouring the crops grown by the peasants, hunger and disatisfaction among the peasants soon escalated rapidly until a major rebellion known as the "Yellow Scarves Rebellion" led by Zhang Jiao broke out. (It was dubbed "Yellow Scarves" because the rebels tied a yellow scarf on their head). Initially just a small band of rebels, due to widespread hunger and ill-sentiment among the populace, swarms of common folks joined in the rebellion across many parts of the country.

三国演义人物介绍

刘备

Liu Bei (161–223 AD), styled Xuándé (玄徳), was a general, warlord, and later the founding emperor of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era of China. Although having a later start than his rivals, also lacking both the material resources and social status they commanded, Liu Bei overcame his many defeats to carve out his own realm, that at its peak spanned modern day Sichuan, Guizhou, Hunan, part of Hubei, and part of Gansu.

Culturally, due to the tremendously popular novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong, Liu Bei is widely known as the ideal benevolent, humane ruler who cared for his people and picked good advisors. His character was to advocate the Confucian set of moral values, such as loyalty and compassion.

张飞

Zhang Fei (?-221 AD) was a military general of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era of China.

Zhang Fei was shown to have been a masterful general rather than simply a warrior. He treated his superiors with respect, but had little respect for his underlings. He was often warned by Liu Bei that his habit of over-punishing his own soldiers by lashing and killing would eventually bring himself disaster.

Zhang Fei married Xiahou Yuan's daughter, who was captured by Zhang Fei's troops as she was out gathering firewood. They had a total of two daughters, and the older daughter became the empress of Shu Han after marrying Liu Shan, with Zhuge Liang as the matchmaker. After Zhang Fei's eldest daughter had passed away due to natural causes, Zhuge Liang once again played the role of matchmaker, and Liu Shan married Zhang Fei's younger daughter, who thus succeeded her older sister to become the empress of Shu Han.

Zhang Fei is best portrayed through his description and actions depicted in Records of Three Kingdoms biography by Chen Shou. Some claim that Zhang Fei was also an excellent painter.

Zhang Fei was killed by his own men Zhang Da and Fan Jiang, while preparing his troops to attack the rival Eastern Wu to avenge the death of Guan Yu. Zhang Da and Fan Jiang went on to defect to Wu.

水浒传Outlaws of the Marsh

The novel "Outlaws of the Marsh" is somewhat like the Iliad and Odyssey... An ancient epic tale... no one remembers the period it was composed and immortalized.

One knows this story is based on real facts and has inspired many storytellers.

One knows the North Song Dynasty (XIIIth Century) lived its apogee and declined, a victim of corruption and decadence.

One finds historical traces of these outlaws who challenged the imperial authority and died under the executioner's blade.

At last, as anyone knows today that a man called Homer wrote the Iliad and Odyssey, no one doubts anymore that a man called Shi Nai-an wrote down during the XIVth century the novel Outlaws of the Marsh that reached us.

Everyone recognizes that Jin Sheng-tan, during the XVIIth century, published what is now famous as the original version of a novel that obtained the interest and infatuation of successive generations.

Water Margin or Outlaws of the Marsh ("All men are brothers" in Pearl Buck's translation, "Shui hu zhuan" in Chinese, "Au Bord de l'Eau" in French ) is an immortal novel because its tale is universal : it speaks of beings (outlaws but also notables, strong muscled heroes but also intellectual, anarchists but also philosophers...) who cannot bear injustice nor abuse nor arbitrariness...

That is the reason they are immortal and their popularity has lasted for centuries .

Discover the 108 heroes, the episodes , the paper-cuts representing them, the Beijing operas their fighting exploits inspired...

人物

Gai Ping Health gave special love make the world anyway, famous arena. Like charges to stick, chicken, and did not take wives, all hit others physique. Village Creek Village haunted legends, villagers digging a river in the town engraved art, ghost was rushed to the East seven. Classical hell, then alone will be engraved Creek Village in places away from the East side down. Thus so-called "Tota kings".

晁盖平 生仗义疏财,专爱结交天下好汉,闻名江湖。喜欢刺枪使棒,身强力壮,不取妻室,终日打熬筋骨。传说邻村西溪村闹鬼,村人凿了一个青石宝塔镇在溪边,鬼就被赶到了东溪村。晁盖大怒,就去西溪村独自将青石宝塔夺了过来在东溪边放下。因此人称“托塔天王”。

西游记Pilgrimage to the West

Journey to the West is a mythological novel based on many centuries of popular tradition. It was probably put into its present form in the 15708 by Wu Cheng’en (1500-82).

This lively fantasy relates the amazing adventures of the priest San-zang as he travels west in search of Buddhist sutras with his three disciples, the irreverent and capable on-

key, greedy Pig, and Friar Sand. The opening chapters recount the earlier exploits of Monkey, culminating in his rebellion against Heaven. We then learn how Sanzang became a monk and was sent on his pilgrimage by the Tang emperor who had escaped death with the help of an Underworld official.

The main story, the journey, takes the priest through all kinds of entertaining trials and tribulations, mainly at the

hands of monsters and spirits who want to eat him. Only the courage and powers of his disciples, especially Monkey, save him from death. Monkey is the hero of the fantasy, and the reader will soon learn why he has long been so loved in China. Will the pilgrims reach the Vulture Peak and obtain the Scriptures? The answer will only be found at the end of the lOO-chapter novel.

The story is as full of imagination as Monkey is of magic, and packed with incident and down-to-earth humour. The illustrations are from 19th-century Chinese edition. This is the first of the three volumes of the novel.

参考资料: http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/47918250.html?si=2

中国四大名著英文简介(重赏)

  东拼西凑,搜集了一堆资料,楼主自己整理一下吧,去其糟粕,取其精华。自己写我是没这个实力的了,毕竟还是很有些专业的东西在里面……

  Chinese Literature - Novels and fiction

  Hongloumeng 红楼梦"The Dream of the Red Chamber"

  Also called "The story of the Stone (Shitouji 石头记)", this novel written by Cao Xueqin 曹雪芹 (d. 1763) is said to be the greatest masterpiece of Chinese fiction. A wide branched scholarship does not consent about the main theme of this novel, should it be a novel of sentiment, of Daoist-Buddhist enlightenment, of social observation, of the decay of an aristocratic familiy, or even a veiled attack on Manchu rule. The frame of the novel is the contest of a Buddhist and a Daoist priest who make be born a young noble boy called Jia Baoyu 贾宝玉 and his girl cousin Lin Daiyu 林黛玉. With a loving detail describing the life of the two cousins in a huge noble mansion, between gardens and palaces, the red thread is the triangular love between Baoyu, Daiyu and a second girl cousin called Xue Baochai 薛宝钗 that is of more plumper character than the ever sick Daiyu. Switching between their life, the divine world and dreams, Baoyu becomes deranged after the disappearance of a stone (the origin of the second title) he had in his mouth when he was born. Not knowing, his love Daiyu died, he is tricked to marrying Baochai. Becoming aware of being tricked, Baoyu leaves the world of the "red dust" and becomes a monk. With hundreds of persons and their stories, paralleling the life and feelings of servants to the life of the main persons, the story is very complex and full of symbolisms, but very interesting and convincing for its encyclopedic character, depicting the life of a noble familiy in the 18th century Qing China 清.

  三国演义Romance of The Three Kingdoms

  Romance of The Three Kingdoms is one of the great chinese classics and is compiled into a semi-fictional literary masterpiece during the Ming Dynasty by Luo Guanzhong. The novel comprises around 70+% fact and 20+% fiction. Some issues such as Guan Yu's weapon weighing around 40+ kilograms, the capabilties of Lu Bu, Liu Bei's horses as well as the existence of the Hill of the Fallen Phoenix and some others are probably fictional.

  That period in history can be said as the golden age of chivalry and although it happened more than 1700 years ago, characters such as Liu Bei, Cao Cao, Guan Yu, Zhang Fei and Zhuge Liang have become household names among the chinese. Tales of their exploits, courage, adventures and many more are told in the novel "Romance of The Three Kingdoms".

  It is one of the most turbulent periods in China's history taking place toward the end of the Han Dynasty where corruption is rampant in the imperial court due to eunuches holding power. Coupled with natural disasters such as floods, plague and locust swarms devouring the crops grown by the peasants, hunger and disatisfaction among the peasants soon escalated rapidly until a major rebellion known as the "Yellow Scarves Rebellion" led by Zhang Jiao broke out. (It was dubbed "Yellow Scarves" because the rebels tied a yellow scarf on their head). Initially just a small band of rebels, due to widespread hunger and ill-sentiment among the populace, swarms of common folks joined in the rebellion across many parts of the country.

  三国演义人物介绍

  刘备

  Liu Bei (161–223 AD), styled Xuándé (玄徳), was a general, warlord, and later the founding emperor of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era of China. Although having a later start than his rivals, also lacking both the material resources and social status they commanded, Liu Bei overcame his many defeats to carve out his own realm, that at its peak spanned modern day Sichuan, Guizhou, Hunan, part of Hubei, and part of Gansu.

  Culturally, due to the tremendously popular novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong, Liu Bei is widely known as the ideal benevolent, humane ruler who cared for his people and picked good advisors. His character was to advocate the Confucian set of moral values, such as loyalty and compassion.

  张飞

  Zhang Fei (?-221 AD) was a military general of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms era of China.

  Zhang Fei was shown to have been a masterful general rather than simply a warrior. He treated his superiors with respect, but had little respect for his underlings. He was often warned by Liu Bei that his habit of over-punishing his own soldiers by lashing and killing would eventually bring himself disaster.

  Zhang Fei married Xiahou Yuan's daughter, who was captured by Zhang Fei's troops as she was out gathering firewood. They had a total of two daughters, and the older daughter became the empress of Shu Han after marrying Liu Shan, with Zhuge Liang as the matchmaker. After Zhang Fei's eldest daughter had passed away due to natural causes, Zhuge Liang once again played the role of matchmaker, and Liu Shan married Zhang Fei's younger daughter, who thus succeeded her older sister to become the empress of Shu Han.

  Zhang Fei is best portrayed through his description and actions depicted in Records of Three Kingdoms biography by Chen Shou. Some claim that Zhang Fei was also an excellent painter.

  Zhang Fei was killed by his own men Zhang Da and Fan Jiang, while preparing his troops to attack the rival Eastern Wu to avenge the death of Guan Yu. Zhang Da and Fan Jiang went on to defect to Wu.

  水浒传Outlaws of the Marsh

  The novel "Outlaws of the Marsh" is somewhat like the Iliad and Odyssey... An ancient epic tale... no one remembers the period it was composed and immortalized.

  One knows this story is based on real facts and has inspired many storytellers.

  One knows the North Song Dynasty (XIIIth Century) lived its apogee and declined, a victim of corruption and decadence.

  One finds historical traces of these outlaws who challenged the imperial authority and died under the executioner's blade.

  At last, as anyone knows today that a man called Homer wrote the Iliad and Odyssey, no one doubts anymore that a man called Shi Nai-an wrote down during the XIVth century the novel Outlaws of the Marsh that reached us.

  Everyone recognizes that Jin Sheng-tan, during the XVIIth century, published what is now famous as the original version of a novel that obtained the interest and infatuation of successive generations.

  Water Margin or Outlaws of the Marsh ("All men are brothers" in Pearl Buck's translation, "Shui hu zhuan" in Chinese, "Au Bord de l'Eau" in French ) is an immortal novel because its tale is universal : it speaks of beings (outlaws but also notables, strong muscled heroes but also intellectual, anarchists but also philosophers...) who cannot bear injustice nor abuse nor arbitrariness...

  That is the reason they are immortal and their popularity has lasted for centuries .

  Discover the 108 heroes, the episodes , the paper-cuts representing them, the Beijing operas their fighting exploits inspired...

  人物

  Gai Ping Health gave special love make the world anyway, famous arena. Like charges to stick, chicken, and did not take wives, all hit others physique. Village Creek Village haunted legends, villagers digging a river in the town engraved art, ghost was rushed to the East seven. Classical hell, then alone will be engraved Creek Village in places away from the East side down. Thus so-called "Tota kings".

  晁盖平 生仗义疏财,专爱结交天下好汉,闻名江湖。喜欢刺枪使棒,身强力壮,不取妻室,终日打熬筋骨。传说邻村西溪村闹鬼,村人凿了一个青石宝塔镇在溪边,鬼就被赶到了东溪村。晁盖大怒,就去西溪村独自将青石宝塔夺了过来在东溪边放下。因此人称“托塔天王”。

  西游记Pilgrimage to the West

  Journey to the West is a mythological novel based on many centuries of popular tradition. It was probably put into its present form in the 15708 by Wu Cheng’en (1500-82).

  This lively fantasy relates the amazing adventures of the priest San-zang as he travels west in search of Buddhist sutras with his three disciples, the irreverent and capable on-

  key, greedy Pig, and Friar Sand. The opening chapters recount the earlier exploits of Monkey, culminating in his rebellion against Heaven. We then learn how Sanzang became a monk and was sent on his pilgrimage by the Tang emperor who had escaped death with the help of an Underworld official.

  The main story, the journey, takes the priest through all kinds of entertaining trials and tribulations, mainly at the

  hands of monsters and spirits who want to eat him. Only the courage and powers of his disciples, especially Monkey, save him from death. Monkey is the hero of the fantasy, and the reader will soon learn why he has long been so loved in China. Will the pilgrims reach the Vulture Peak and obtain the Scriptures? The answer will only be found at the end of the lOO-chapter novel.

  The story is as full of imagination as Monkey is of magic, and packed with incident and down-to-earth humour. The illustrations are from 19th-century Chinese edition. This is the first of the three volumes of the novel.

参考资料: http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/47918250.html?si=2

红楼梦和曹雪芹用英语怎么翻译

一般人的姓名的翻译,就是他的拼音。红楼梦的翻译有以下四个。1 A Dream in Red Mansions 2 The Story of the Stone 3 Stone Story(石头记) 4.dream of the red chamber

曹雪芹写《红楼梦》到底想要表达什么?

【思想内容】

《红楼梦》是一部内涵丰厚的作品,《好了歌》和《红楼梦十二支曲》提示着贾宝玉所经历的三重悲剧。作者将贾宝玉和一群身份、地位不同的少女放在大观园这个既是诗化的、又是真实的小说世界里,来展示她们的青春生命和美的被毁灭的悲剧。作品极为深刻之处在于,并没有把这个悲剧完全归于恶人的残暴,其中一部分悲剧是封建势力的直接摧残,如鸳鸯、晴雯、司棋这些人物的悲惨下场,但是更多的悲剧是封建伦理关系中的“通常之道德、通常之人情、通常之境遇”所造成的,是几千年积淀而凝固下来的正统文化的深层结构造成的人生悲剧。小说描绘了上至皇宫、下及乡村的广阔历史画面,广泛而深刻地反映了封建末世复杂深刻的矛盾冲突,显示了封建贵族的本质特征和必然衰败的历史命运。尤其深刻的是,在小说展示的贾府的生活图画里,显示出维持着这个贵族之家的等级、名分、长幼、男女等关系的礼法习俗的荒谬,揭开了封建家族“温情脉脉面纱”内里的种种激烈的矛盾和斗争。

《红楼梦》揭露了封建社会后期的种种黑暗和罪恶,及其不可克服的内在矛盾,对腐朽的封建统治阶级和行将崩溃的封建制度作了有力的批判,使读者预感到它必然要走向覆灭的命运;同时小说还通过对贵族叛逆者的歌颂,表达了新的朦胧的理想。在我国文学史上,还没有一部作品能把爱情的悲剧写得像《红楼梦》那样富有激动人心的力量;也没有一部作品能像它那样把爱情悲剧的社会根源揭示得如此全面、深刻,从而对封建社会作出了最深刻有力的批判。

【作者简介】

曹雪芹(约1715-约1763),名沾,字梦阮,号雪芹,又号芹溪、芹圃,中国古典名著《红楼梦》作者,籍贯沈阳(一说辽阳),生于南京,约十四岁时迁回北京。曹雪芹出身清代内务府正白旗包衣世家,他是江宁织造曹寅之孙,曹顒之子(一说曹頫之子)。

曹雪芹早年在南京江宁织造府亲历了一段锦衣纨绔、富贵风流的生活。至雍正六年(1728),曹家因亏空获罪被抄家,曹雪芹随家人迁回北京老宅。后又移居北京西郊,靠卖字画和朋友救济为生。曹雪芹素性放达,爱好广泛,对金石、诗书、绘画、园林、中医、织补、工艺、饮食等均有所研究。他以坚韧不拔的毅力,历经多年艰辛,终于创作出极具思想性、艺术性的伟大作品——《红楼梦》。

求一份中国园林的历史的英文介绍,最好有翻译。不要太长。。。

中国园林建筑艺术是我国灿烂的古代文化的组成部分。它是我国古代劳动人民智慧和创造力的结晶,也是我国古代哲学思想、宗教信仰、文化艺术等综合反映,在历史上却长期为统治阶级和达官贵人所占有享用。但是,在经历了漫长的历程之后今天已经被我们所继承和发展,而为我国广大人民所享用了。

为了能简要地说明中国园林的发展历史,现根据历史文献和现存古代园林遗址的考察,循其明显的规迹,大致可以分成三个时期来概述之。

(一)先秦及秦汉时期。此时期或可称为“白然时期”,是从“固”到“苑”的发展时期,约相当于距今三四千年的我国社会历史发展的殷商西周时代。旱在原始时代,当人类进人奴隶制社会,先民主要的生产活动是狩猎劝!渔猎,后来慢慢进化到种植定居,驯养了一些野生动物,比如猪、犬、羊等,种植了一些植物,比如禾、麦、稻、获等。这样就出现了圈养、圈种的有一定范围的地方,在甲骨文、糟文、金文中出现了“因、眺(囿)”“鉴、翻(圃),,等字,随着生产力的进一步提高,有了从事农事、畜牧、手工业制作以及各种杂务劳动的专业奴隶阶层,在解决了生活的劳务后,奴隶主和帝王们就有了足够的时间来进行各种游乐戏嬉,其中包括“狩猎”活动。而那些被选择为狩猎地区的地方,一定是那些禽兽比较集中,山丘或林茂之地,水草丛生之处,这就是成为种植与株、圈养动物的“囿”。根据史料记载,从殷周到秦汉时期这种“囿”的存在和发展,大体具有三个特点:

1.:片地宽广。一般方圆都在几十里、上百里左右,如春秋楚庄王“筑层台……延壤百里,’;

2.工程浩大。囿的周围有界垣,囿内有台屋构筑。

3.人工设施增加。山于狩猎地距离统治中心地较远,不免要

在“囿”内建寝殿屋宇。

这种最早期的“囿”到汉代有了新的发展,它不仅仅是一种自然山林的原始状态的存在,而是日趋专门化了。帝王们在这里建“宫”设“馆”,除了为游猎所需要,增添了寝宫殿宇生活设施,还配置了观赏植物、人工山水等景色,初步具有了“园林”性质,从汉代起它的名称也从古代的“囿”改称“苑”或“苑圈”了。著名的汉武帝的“上林苑”中,有“建章宫”,有“太液池”,周围数百里,盖起宫殿数十个,设置了“射熊馆”、“鹿观”、“虎圈观”等各种动物的圈观,并种植了各地送来的异树花木,如“核桃,,“紫纹桃”等等。不过此时尚处于中国园林发展初期,对于苑囿的布局布置,并无一定规划,仍较多地带有古“囿”的持猎趣味。建筑和山水的安排,也并不融洽有序,奇树异花的种植,只是猎奇罗列,虽然它有了某些园林的性质,开启了日后造园的新生面。总的说,仍是处于自然发展的时期。

(二)唐宋时期。它是我国古典园林的形成时期。由汉代开端的中国园林发展进程,经过东汉、三国、魏晋南北朝到隋代统一中国的过渡,至唐代出现了一个兴盛的局面。由于疆域的扩大、经济的发达、民族的融合,促进了文化艺术的发展,达到了一个空前繁荣时期,和别的文化发展一样,园林发展中出现了两个显著的特点,一是在苑囿的营建中注意了游乐和赏景的作用,如在殿宇建筑外,已注意到迭石造山,凿池引泉。布局关系也趋于融洽,使之形成优美的环境,发挥了休憩、游赏,甚至宴乐之功能,一是绘画技术的发展与造园艺术的发展的互相促进,如南朝梁·张僧怒擅长画山水,能“咫尺之间便觉万里之遥”,画家所提炼的构图、排列、层次和色彩,极大地丰宫了造园技巧,而且有的画家,自己就是一个杰出的造园专家,如诗人王维设计营建的“辆川园”。

中国园林形成时期最突出的成就是造园和文学、绘画的结合,大家所熟知的宋徽宗营建的“良岳”,也就是《水浒传》里“花石纲”的来历。这个御花园,山水美秀、林木畅茂,迭石树峰,又有宫殿亭阁,高低错落,迭山凿池,别出胜景,可称为唐宋时期中国古典园林的代表作,可惜已经在战火中夷为平地,在地面上永远地消失了。

(三)明清时期。中国古典园林的全盛时一期。北宋为辽金取代后,辽、金、元三代后先相继,在燕京一带兴修皇家园林。金代从开封拆运至中都大量的良岳花石,元代在建筑艺术中促进了国内各民族和东西方文化的交流,使我国各民族丰富奇特的建筑形式 更添异彩。(如至今还能见到的十三世纪出于尼泊尔艺术家阿尼哥之手的北京妙应寺白塔等)。明代及清代初期,在中国园林发展史上是个辉煌的时期,达到了它的全盛时期。这有我们今天仍能亲眼目睹的很多实物实景所证明。这个全盛时期的园林,与过去时代所不同的,育三个方面的特点:(1)功能全,(2)形式多,(3)艺术化。兹为分述如卜:

(1)功能全:在各个历史时期的园休发展,卜,都有新增加的内容,至明济后大备,诸如听政、受贺、宴会、观戏、居住、园游、读书、礼佛、观赏、狩猎、种花等等,应有尽有,甚至为满足统治者的“雅兴”,还建有商业市街之景,如近年恢复的颐和园苏州街,以及圆明园原来的买卖街.包罗了帝王生括的全部活动,功能的多样花,自然扩大了园林的建筑营造规模,此其一。

(2)形式多。这里指的是作为园林重要组成部分的建筑而言,无论其为建筑群落组合,抑或单体建筑形色,其形式也是多种多样的。它既吸收了各地区的地方特点和各民族的民族风格,既有殿堂楼阁,又有幽尼佛寺;既有粉墙石垣,又有竹篱泥笆,灵活而多变,随处而点缀,这在‘红楼梦》中大观园也有非常生动的反映。在园林布局及布置方l厄则吸收r南北园林艺术的精华,因地制宜地加以汇聚,比如圆明三园的诸多景色中就再现了国内苏杭扬州等地著名园林的特点,谓之“移天缩地”亦不为过。

(3)艺术化。明济园林中占卞导地位的是园林建筑的高度艺术化,其景物、其凤格、其布局,移步借景,动静相兼等艺术美学理论的运川,已臻成热,各种建筑形式的风景景观的结合融为体,自水木石的精心安才i沁建筑植物的众从位粉,都起到了立体形象l,甚至在附属设施的样式、内部装修和环境色彩等方面也都得到统一的和谐的没计,体现了中国造园思想的高超境界。

试问,明清时期的中国园林建筑,共造园思想何以能达到如此发达的艺术水平,我认为有两个重要的标志。

第一,造园艺术理论有了划时代的总结性成果,即明代崇祯时江苏吴江人计成《园冶》一书的问世。过去,关于园林的设计(或叫“经营,,)原则、艺术技巧和实际建造经验,还只能在诗词、游记等文学作品中有片断描述,没有形成理论规律。但是《园冶》却是一部有关园林建筑的系统性的总结性的专门著作。全书共三卷,一卷为造园总论(’兴造论》、《“园说、)、选地(《相地》)、立基和各种单体建筑(屋宇堂轩)的形象范例,二卷讲各式栏杆及其式样;三卷讲「1窗、墙垣、铺地、造山、迭石、借景等,全书计三万多字,并有插图二百余幅。它反映了当时的园林面貌和造园艺术水平,而且一直对中国造园有指导意义,甚至可以说曹雪芹在《红楼梦》中创造的大观园也是根据这些理论来构建的。

第二,大批造园艺术家的诞生,如清代戏曲家李渔(笠翁),在南北都有自己设计建造的住宅园林,以北京的芥子园最有名。杰出的造园家张南垣父子,更是园林史上的大家,不仅在苏扬等南方园林中有他们的遗构,北京北海公园取,就有他们的遗作可供欣赏。以他们的生存年代推算,我们有理由认为《红楼梦》中营建大观园的造园设计师“山子野”的原型,应该就是张氏父子了。

如何用英文描述关于读名著的好处?

Hewrotethatthe‘humanmindiscapableofexcitementwithouttheapplicationofgrossandviolentstimulants’.AnditappearsthatsimplyreadingthosewordsbyWilliamWordsworthprovehispoint.

ResearchersattheUniversityofLiverpoolfoundtheproseofShakespeareandWordsworthandthelikehadabeneficialeffectonthemind,providinga’rocket-boost’tomoralebycatchingthereader’sattentionandtriggeringmomentsofself-reflection.

Using scanners, they monitored the brain activity of volunteers as they read pieces of classical English literature both in their original form and in a more dumbed-down, modern translation.

曹雪芹简介,以及写红楼梦时生活情况?

乾隆二十八年(1763年),曹雪芹幼子夭亡,他陷于过度的忧伤和悲痛,卧床不起。到了这一年的除夕(1764年2月12日),终于因贫病无医而逝世,享年四十岁。曹雪芹“身胖,头广而色黑”。他性格傲岸,愤世嫉俗,豪放不羁。嗜酒,才气纵横,善谈吐。曹雪芹是一位诗人。他的诗,立意新奇,风格近于唐代诗人李贺。他的友人敦诚曾称赞说:“爱君诗笔有奇气,直追昌谷破篱樊。”又说:“知君诗胆昔如铁,堪与刀颖交寒光。”但他的诗仅存题敦诚《琵琶行传奇》两句:“白傅诗灵应喜甚,定教蛮素鬼排场。”曹雪芹又是一位画家,喜绘突兀奇峭的石头。敦敏《题芹圃画石》说:“傲骨如君世已奇,嶙峋更见此支离。醉余奋扫如椽笔,写出胸中块磊时。”可见他画石头时寄托了胸中郁积着的不平之气。曹雪芹的最大的贡献还在于小说的创作。

当时是流放式生活,很艰苦的

唐山的概况要有中文和英文介绍

唐山

以1976年大地震而闻名于世

工业城市

滥觞于开滦煤矿,因煤要运出,就出现了古冶铁路段。

地震前,唐山的GDP占到全国的1%,以煤炭、钢铁、电力和陶瓷为主。

地震后,唐山一度沉寂,尤其是在国有企业纷纷垮掉的那几年

不过随着民营资产的介入,以及周遍铁矿、煤矿的开采,唐山开始走向振兴,以钢铁为龙头的产品迅猛发展,占具全国冶金企业中极其重要的地位。

唯一遗憾的是,唐山的文化底蕴很薄弱,可以说基本上没有文化积淀。

求英语翻译

This blue light messes with our internal clock making us think it's mid day when really it can be closer to night and stops our body from naturally producing the melanin that helps us fall asleep late at night

翻译:

这种蓝光干扰了我们的内部时钟,使我们认为是在中午的时候,它可以更接近黑夜,阻止我们的身体自然产生黑色素,帮助我们在深夜入睡。

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